Since the Open-Reform period, China has driven the Four Modernization Policies(四個 現代化政策) for national development. It is very important for us to research the basic theory of the national development. The beginning chapter introduces the purpose of this study by building up and proving the hypothesis that Deng Xiaoping`s theoretical system was based on Chinese social reform. The second chapter examines the background of Deng Xiaoping`s theoretical system in the fields of social economy, politics, and history. The third chapter analyzes the structures of society with Deng Xiaoping`s theoretical system. It will examine the productive forces and the productive relations as the social substructure, the economic structures and political structures as the social structure, religion, ethics, law, theory, moral, customs as the social consciousness. The fourth chapter examines the practical reflection of Deng Xiaoping`s theoretical system on the Chinese society such as, promotion of productive forces, improvement of productive relations, economic structures, political structures, spiritual civilization during the open-reform period. The fifth chapter evaluates Deng Xiaoping`s theoretical system for the achievement and side effect of The Four Modernization Policies and the Open-Reform Policies. In conclusion, Deng Xiaoping`s theoretical system is the main theory to solve the general problems of China in the past. His historical materialism could be evaluated as a theory to cope with requirement for the current age and change in China as a joint product of Marxism and China`s specific situations.