Table of Contents
Part I. History of Screen Quota in Korea
Part II. Comparison with the American and Indian Movie Industries
1. The American Movie Industry
: Specialization – Blockbusters and Independent Films
2. Bollywood: Differentiation – Showcasing Indian Culture
Part III. Comparison with the French Movie Industry
1. The Film Industry of France
2. Quota System in France
A) Mechanisms of Screen Quota in France
B) Negotiation Process
3. Pros and Cons – The Debate
Part IV. Current Status of the Screen Quota and the Korea-US FTA
1. What is Happening Today?
2. Korean Government; in the Name of National Interest.
3. Korean Film Industry; in the Name of Competitiveness.
4. Korean Film industry; the Real Reason?
Part V. Conclusion
: Suggestions for the Korean Movie Industry and Future Prospects
The screen quota has long been a hot debate in Korea’s multilateral and bilateral negotiations. Although the screen quota was given considerable exemptions in the Korea-Chile FTA, recent ratification of the FTA with the US paints a drastically different picture. The mandatory days were cut to half from its previous number as opposition from the movie industry continues. In the GATT cinematograph films are granted ‘national treatment.’ Now, even within the WTO, laws for cinematograph films has not been agreed upon.
Those opposing the demise of the screen quota system argue that the local film industry is not yet sophisticated enough to global giants such as Hollywood which often has funds from 10 to over 1000 times greater compared to Korean films. Although many Korean films are produced, a significant number of them do not make it to theaters due to competition. They support the view the free trade is mechanism by which powerful economies dominate the weaker ones. They argue that cinematograph films especially is a way powerful economies indirectly and negatively affect dominant cultures and life styles (Choi, 2007).
Figure 1. Average Production Costs of Korean Films by year (unit: hundred million won)
Source: Korean Cinema Yearbook 2007, KOFIC
Businessweek, Bollywood vs. Hollywood.
[http://www.businessweek.com//magazine/content/02_48/art02_48/a48tab37.gif] Accessed December 13, 2007.
Cable, Vincent. The New Trade Agenda: Universal Rules Amid Cultural Diversity. International Affairs (Royal Institute of International Affairs 1944-), Vol. 72, No. 2, New Currents in Trade Policy Thinking (Apr., 1996), pp. 227-246
Choi, Yonjae Does screen quota promote film production?, Information technology research v14 (2007 March), pg-119-139.
Hayward, Susan. French National Cinema, Routledge, 2005
Monaco, Eitel. The Financing of Film Production in Europe. Cinema Journal, Vol. 14, No. 1 (Autumn, 1974), pp. 18-25
Terra Media Website, American Film Boycotts [http://www.terramedia.co.uk/law/american_film_boycotts.htm date of access: 2007-12-13]
Wadhwani, Anita N., "Bollywood Mania” Rising in United States (August 9, 2006).
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