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This essay is to examine to what extent the Copenhagen criteria can be used to explain the decision to exclude Bulgaria, Romania and Turkey from the latest round of EU enlargement from 15 to 25 member-states.
Nearly 11 years after the Copenhagen European Council of 1993, the first-tier 10 candidates, Poland, Hungary, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Malta and Cyprus, have been accepted as full members of the EU in May 2004. In the mean time, Bulgaria and Romania as a second-tier and Turkey have still remained as candidates for accession although the first two countries will be able to join the EU in 2007, provided that they make further satisfactory progress in complying with the Copenhagen criteria. The Copenhagen criteria are essential requirements with which candidate states must comply in order to become full members of the EU. These include stability of institutions guaranteeing democracy, the rule of law, human rights and respect for and protection of minorities, the existence of a functioning market economy as well as the capacity to cope with competitive pressure and market forces within the Union, adopting in the full common rules, standards and policies which make up the body of EU law so-called acquis communautaire
The essay is divided into three parts. The first part examines what made these three candidates exclusive from the last round of enlargement process in political and economic dimentions, with reference to the Copenhagen criteria. In the second part, I shall look at the limitations of the criteria in order to argue its narrow applications to the accession decision. The last part will, therfore, provide other possible attributes in the EU’s reject against three countries.
Baun, Michael J. , 2000, A Wider Europe, Rowman & Littlefield : Oxford
Dimitrova, Antoaneta and Dragneva, Rika, Perspectives on European Politics and Society - Bulgaria’s Road to the European Union: Progress, Problems and Perspectives p 79-104 Brill Academic Pulishers 2:1, 2001
Europa, 2002 REGULAR REPORTON BULGARIA’SPROGRESS TOWARDS ACCESSION, http://europa.eu.int/comm/enlargement/report2002/bu_en.pdf, 30 Dec 2005
Europa, 2002 REGULAR REPORT ON ROMANIA’S PROGRESS TOWARDS ACCESSION
http://europa.eu.int/comm/enlargement/report2002/ro_en.pdf , 30 Dec 2005
Europa, 2002 REGULAR REPORT ON TURKEY’S PROGRESS TOWARDS ACCESSION, http://europa.eu.int/comm/enlargement/report2002/tu_en.pdf, 30 Dec 2005
Europa, Strategy Paper 2002, http://europa.eu.int/comm/enlargement/report2002/strategy_en.pdf, 30 Dec 2005
Europa, 2004 COMMISSION STAFF WORKING DOCUMENT; ISSUES ARISING FROM TURKEY'S MEMBERSHIP PERSPECTIV, http://europa.eu.int/comm/enlargement/report_2004/pdf/issues_paper_en.pdf
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