학술논문 > 자연과학 > 생물 (자료번호 : H3554582)
Benefits of Moraceae Family Trees in Emergence of Springs: Local Knowledge Perception (Case Study from Gendol Hill, Bulukerto, Wonogirl, Central Java, Indonesia) - 자연과학 > 생물
Deforestation such as illegal logging and forest fires has caused a big disadvantage for surrounding people. In general, the losses were disasters such as floods, landslides and droughts. Disaster is something that causes damage, loss or misery (The Big Dictionary of Indonesian Language, 1996). Gendol hill is a forest area that has experienced disasters caused by forest destruction. Among the disasters occurred in Gendol hill area was drought or difficulty in fulfilment of the need of fresh water. A number of springs have been drying up after the destruction of Gendol forest in 1963. Efforts to restore the forest by reforestation or replanting have been conducted since a long time by the government (Perhutani) with planting of pine trees (Pinus merkusii). Since 1996, trees of Moraceae family were also planted gradually by local person. Three species from the Moraceae family that have been planted are Ficus benyamina, Ficus annulata, Ficus retusa, Ficus recemosa, Ficus microcara etc. By 2016, at least 4000 trees species from Moraceae family have been planted together thousands other species. Based steps of planting, there are three groups of Moraceae family trees in Gendol hill. They are tree groups aged 15-20 years, 10-15 years and 1-10 years (Anonimous, 2016) The case study aimed to get information of Moraceae family trees plantation benefits in emergence of springs. Observation, in-depth interview, documentation and study literature were conducted for this study in April 2016. Observation of the field conditions (vegetation and springs conditions) was conducted to obtain description of the location and springs condition. In depth Interview has conducted by interviewing of key persons to obtain historical information (forest destruction, loss of springs, replanting efforts, and re-emergence of springs). In-depth interview also aimed to get information about the benefits received by local people from the emergence of springs. While documentation in the form of photos of vegetation conditions and springs was taken to get more descriptions. To complete this research, we has also taken secondary data from related parties and some literatures. Furthermore, the collected data analyzed by descriptive-qualitative analysis method. The results showed that the planting of Moraceae family trees such as Ficus benyamina, Ficus annulata Blume, and Ficus retusa L. had a real benefit in emergence of springs on study site including re-emergence of died springs. There are many springs appearing in both large and small sizes. Five springs in quite large size appearing around the Moraceae family trees stand on the slopes of Gendol hill after 17 years of planting. The water yield of each springs was directly proportional to the amount and size of Moraceae family trees around the springs. The water discharge (outflow) of springs under 5 trees with height average 14 m and diameter 25 cm is bigger than the springs under 3 trees with height average 12 m and diameter 20 cm. The emergence of springs in Gendol hills has brought many benefits to the lives of the surrounding people. Based on descriptive analysis, the benefits for local community are; 1) Fulfilment of fresh water needs for at least 800 families of local communities (at least 240,000 litters / day), 2) Increasing of water availability for irrigating rice fields (from 1 harvest / year to become 3 harvest / year) so that people income around Gendol hill increased, 3) Increasing of public awareness in planting / greening including local government, 4) Appearing of tourism service potential that may be developed by local government together local people . Therefore, advanced research or applied research is suggested to be conducted for assessing the effect of Moraceae family trees on all aspects (vegetation, soil, hydrology and socio-economic). The research suggested are; a) The characteristics of vegetation on the springs area and their relation with springs, b) The effect of Moraceae family trees on water yield, c)Affecting factors in the springs sustainability (physical, socio-economic and institutional, d) Environmental services analysis of Springs management.
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